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Learning Lance has a copy of his book, Harper worries he will discover that Harper and Mia had a one-night stand in college. Confronting Harper about their mutual attraction, Jordan admits she wants to have sex with him that night, before Robyn arrives for the wedding the next day, and they share a kiss.
Lance confronts Harper in the bathroom, but merely thanks him for his friendship; they are interrupted before Harper can come clean.
As the groomsmen depart for the bachelor party , Jordan invites Harper to meet her later, and Murch finally stands up to Shelby.
At the party, Harper steals Lance's copy of "Unfinished Business", to the disgust of Quentin, who has deduced Harper's secret. As the party gets increasingly drunk, Murch falls for one of the strippers, Candy Regina Hall , and Harper calls Jordan, accepting her invitation.
Finding the book in Harper's coat, Lance reads it, realizing that Mia slept with Harper in college to get back at Lance for his numerous infidelities.
Enraged, Lance attacks Harper and almost throws him off the balcony, but Quentin talks him down, and Lance calls off the wedding. A badly beaten Harper arrives at Jordan's apartment.
The next day, Harper meets Robyn at the airport. She notices his injuries, and Harper confesses everything. Disappointed in him, Robyn prepares to leave, but Harper declares how much he needs her, and she reluctantly agrees to help him save the wedding.
Arriving at the church with Candy, Murch breaks up with Shelby. Lance arrives, and his friends try desperately to stop him before he can tell his parents the wedding is off.
Harper — who has never agreed with Lance's religious devotion — halts him by asking him to pray. While Robyn and Jordan tend to Mia, who is oblivious to the previous night's events, Harper begs for Lance's forgiveness and assures him of his and Mia's love.
After forcing Harper to pray with him, a tearful Lance proceeds with the wedding. Shelby pushes a bridesmaid out of the way to seize the bouquet , while Quentin catches the garter.
Jordan finds closure with Harper, telling him Robyn is the woman for him. On the dance floor, Harper thanks Robyn for her help and, in front of the entire wedding party asks her to marry him; she says yes.
The film ends as everyone dances the electric slide. The film received mostly positive reviews from critics. Movies site.
The film received numerous awards and accolades. Terrence Howard 's performance in particular earned much praise from many film critics, and in hindsight The Best Man is considered to be his breakout film.
Jason Clark in his Allmovie review even stated that although Taye Diggs does well in his first true starring role, Howard "commands the screen with such abandon that one secretly wishes the film could have been all about his oddly captivating character".
The film itself also won Outstanding Motion Picture. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Theatrical release poster.
Finger said, "Batman was originally written in the style of the pulps",  and this influence was evident with Batman showing little remorse over killing or maiming criminals.
Batman proved a hit character, and he received his own solo title in while continuing to star in Detective Comics.
By that time, Detective Comics was the top-selling and most influential publisher in the industry; Batman and the company's other major hero, Superman, were the cornerstones of the company's success.
Creators including Jerry Robinson and Dick Sprang also worked on the strips during this period. Over the course of the first few Batman strips elements were added to the character and the artistic depiction of Batman evolved.
Kane noted that within six issues he drew the character's jawline more pronounced, and lengthened the ears on the costume. The character's origin was revealed in 33 Nov.
Written by Finger, it depicts a young Bruce Wayne witnessing his parents' murder at the hands of a mugger. Days later, at their grave, the child vows that "by the spirits of my parents [I will] avenge their deaths by spending the rest of my life warring on all criminals".
The early, pulp-inflected portrayal of Batman started to soften in Detective Comics 38 April with the introduction of Robin , Batman's junior counterpart.
By , the writers and artists behind the Batman comics had established most of the basic elements of the Batman mythos.
The impact of this editorial approach was evident in Batman comics of the postwar period; removed from the "bleak and menacing world" of the strips of the early s, Batman was instead portrayed as a respectable citizen and paternal figure that inhabited a "bright and colorful" environment.
Batman was one of the few superhero characters to be continuously published as interest in the genre waned during the s.
In the story "The Mightiest Team in the World" in Superman 76 June , Batman teams up with Superman for the first time and the pair discover each other's secret identity.
Batman comics were among those criticized when the comic book industry came under scrutiny with the publication of psychologist Fredric Wertham 's book Seduction of the Innocent in Wertham's thesis was that children imitated crimes committed in comic books, and that these works corrupted the morals of the youth.
Wertham criticized Batman comics for their supposed homosexual overtones and argued that Batman and Robin were portrayed as lovers.
The tendency towards a "sunnier Batman" in the postwar years intensified after the introduction of the Comics Code. In the late s, Batman stories gradually became more science fiction-oriented, an attempt at mimicking the success of other DC characters that had dabbled in the genre.
Batman's adventures often involved odd transformations or bizarre space aliens. By , sales of Batman titles had fallen drastically. Bob Kane noted that, as a result, DC was "planning to kill Batman off altogether".
He presided over drastic changes, beginning with 's Detective Comics May , which was cover-billed as the "New Look". Schwartz introduced changes designed to make Batman more contemporary, and to return him to more detective-oriented stories.
He brought in artist Carmine Infantino to help overhaul the character. The Batmobile was redesigned, and Batman's costume was modified to incorporate a yellow ellipse behind the bat-insignia.
The space aliens, time travel, and characters of the s such as Batwoman, Ace, and Bat-Mite were retired. Bruce Wayne's butler Alfred was killed off though his death was quickly reversed while a new female relative for the Wayne family, Aunt Harriet, came to live with Bruce Wayne and Dick Grayson.
The debut of the Batman television series in had a profound influence on the character. The success of the series increased sales throughout the comic book industry, and Batman reached a circulation of close to , copies.
Although both the comics and TV show were successful for a time, the camp approach eventually wore thin and the show was canceled in In the aftermath, the Batman comics themselves lost popularity once again.
As Julius Schwartz noted, "When the television show was a success, I was asked to be campy, and of course when the show faded, so did the comic books.
Starting in , writer Dennis O'Neil and artist Neal Adams made a deliberate effort to distance Batman from the campy portrayal of the s TV series and to return the character to his roots as a "grim avenger of the night".
I went to the DC library and read some of the early stories. I tried to get a sense of what Kane and Finger were after. Few stories were true collaborations between O'Neil, Adams, Schwartz, and inker Dick Giordano , and in actuality these men were mixed and matched with various other creators during the s; nevertheless the influence of their work was "tremendous".
Frank Miller 's limited series The Dark Knight Returns February—June returned the character to his darker roots, both in atmosphere and tone.
The comic book, which tells the story of a year-old Batman coming out of retirement in a possible future, reinvigorated interest in the character.
The Dark Knight Returns was a financial success and has since become one of the medium's most noted touchstones.
That year Dennis O'Neil took over as editor of the Batman titles and set the template for the portrayal of Batman following DC's status quo-altering miniseries Crisis on Infinite Earths.
O'Neil operated under the assumption that he was hired to revamp the character and as a result tried to instill a different tone in the books than had gone before.
Writer Alan Moore and artist Brian Bolland continued this dark trend with 's page one-shot Batman: The Killing Joke , in which the Joker, attempting to drive Commissioner Gordon insane, cripples Gordon's daughter Barbara , and then kidnaps and tortures the commissioner, physically and psychologically.
The Batman comics garnered major attention in when DC Comics created a number for readers to call to vote on whether Jason Todd , the second Robin, lived or died.
Voters decided in favor of Jason's death by a narrow margin of 28 votes see Batman: A Death in the Family. The " Knightfall " story arc introduced a new villain, Bane , who critically injures Batman after pushing him to the limits of his endurance.
Writers Doug Moench , Chuck Dixon , and Alan Grant worked on the Batman titles during "Knightfall", and would also contribute to other Batman crossovers throughout the s.
Another writer who rose to prominence on the Batman comic series, was Jeph Loeb. Along with longtime collaborator Tim Sale, they wrote two miniseries The Long Halloween and Dark Victory that pit an early in his career version of Batman against his entire rogues gallery including Two-Face , whose origin was re-envisioned by Loeb while dealing with various mysteries involving serial killers Holiday and the Hangman.
The 12—issue storyline has Batman and Catwoman teaming up against Batman's entire rogues gallery, including an apparently resurrected Jason Todd , while seeking to find the identity of the mysterious supervillain Hush.
The series became 1 on the Diamond Comic Distributors sales chart for the first time since Batman Oct. Written by Frank Miller and drawn by Jim Lee, the series was a commercial success for DC Comics,   although it was widely panned by critics for its writing and strong depictions of violence.
Starting in , Grant Morrison and Paul Dini were the regular writers of Batman and Detective Comics , with Morrison reincorporating controversial elements of Batman lore.
Most notably of these elements were the science fiction themed storylines of the s Batman comics, which Morrison revised as hallucinations Batman suffered under the influence of various mind-bending gases and extensive sensory deprivation training.
Morrison's run climaxed with "Batman R. In , the storyline Batman: The Return of Bruce Wayne saw Bruce travel through history, eventually returning to the present day.
Although he reclaimed the mantle of Batman, he also allowed Grayson to continue being Batman as well. Bruce decided to take his crime-fighting cause globally, which is the central focus of Batman Incorporated.
In September , DC Comics' entire line of superhero comic books, including its Batman franchise, were canceled and relaunched with new 1 issues as part of The New 52 reboot.
Dick Grayson returns to the mantle of Nightwing and appears in his own ongoing series. While many characters have their histories significantly altered to attract new readers, Batman's history remains mostly intact.
Batman Incorporated was relaunched in — to complete the "Leviathan" storyline. His first major story arc was " Night of the Owls ", where Batman confronts the Court of Owls , a secret society that has controlled Gotham for centuries.
The second story arc was " Death of the Family ", where the Joker returns to Gotham and simultaneously attacks each member of the Batman family.
It followed Batman 0, published in June , which explored the character's early years. The final storyline before the " Convergence " storyline was " Endgame ", depicting the supposed final battle between Batman and the Joker when he unleashes the deadly Endgame virus onto Gotham City.
The storyline ends with Batman and the Joker's supposed deaths. Starting with Batman vol. However, Bruce Wayne is soon revealed to be alive, albeit now suffering almost total amnesia of his life as Batman and only remembering his life as Bruce Wayne through what he has learned from Alfred.
Bruce Wayne finds happiness and proposes to his girlfriend, Julie Madison , but Mr. Bloom heavily injures Jim Gordon and takes control of Gotham City and threatens to destroy the city by energizing a particle reactor to create a "strange star" to swallow the city.
Bruce Wayne discovers the truth that he was Batman and after talking to a stranger who smiles a lot it is heavily implied that this is the amnesic Joker he forces Alfred to implant his memories as Batman, but at the cost of his memories as the reborn Bruce Wayne.
He returns and helps Jim Gordon defeat Mr. Bloom and shut down the reactor. Gordon gets his job back as the commissioner, and the government Batman project is shut down.
Batman was rebooted as starting with a one-shot issue entitled Batman: Rebirth 1 Aug. The series then began shipping twice-monthly as a third volume, starting with Batman vol.
The Batman series introduced two vigilantes, Gotham and Gotham Girl. Detective Comics resumed its original numbering system starting with June 's , and the New 52 series was labeled as volume 2, with issues numbering from The continuity established by Rebirth continues across DC's comic book titles, including volume one of Detective Comics and volume three of Batman.
After the conclusion of Batman vol. Batman's secret identity is Bruce Wayne, a wealthy American industrialist. As a child, Bruce witnessed the murder of his parents, Dr.
Thomas Wayne and Martha Wayne , which ultimately led him to craft the Batman persona and seek justice against criminals. He resides on the outskirts of Gotham City in his personal residence, Wayne Manor.
Wayne averts suspicion by acting the part of a superficial playboy idly living off his family's fortune and the profits of Wayne Enterprises , his inherited conglomerate.
Although Bruce Wayne leads an active romantic life, his vigilante activities as Batman account for most of his time.
Various modern stories have portrayed the extravagant, playboy image of Bruce Wayne as a facade. Bruce Wayne's principles include the desire to prevent future harm and a vow not to kill.
Bruce Wayne believes that our actions define us, we fail for a reason and anything is possible. Writers of Batman and Superman stories have often compared and contrasted the two.
Interpretations vary depending on the writer, the story, and the timing. He notes an equally stark contrast in their real identities.
Bruce Wayne and Clark Kent belong to different social classes: "Bruce has a butler, Clark has a boss. James Musler's book Unleashing the Superhero in Us All explores the extent to which Bruce Wayne's vast personal wealth is important in his life story, and the crucial role it plays in his efforts as Batman.
Will Brooker notes in his book Batman Unmasked that "the confirmation of the Batman's identity lies with the young audience There's just a sense about him: 'they trust him Batman's primary character traits can be summarized as "wealth; physical prowess; deductive abilities and obsession".
Dennis O'Neil noted that character consistency was not a major concern during early editorial regimes: " Julie Schwartz did a Batman in Batman and Detective and Murray Boltinoff did a Batman in the Brave and the Bold and apart from the costume they bore very little resemblance to each other.
Julie and Murray did not want to coordinate their efforts, nor were they asked to do so. Continuity was not important in those days.
The driving force behind Bruce Wayne's character is his parents' murder and their absence. Bob Kane and Bill Finger discussed Batman's background and decided that "there's nothing more traumatic than having your parents murdered before your eyes".
Another of Batman's characterizations is that of a vigilante; in order to stop evil that started with the death of his parents, he must sometimes break the law himself.
Although manifested differently by being re-told by different artists, it is nevertheless that the details and the prime components of Batman's origin have never varied at all in the comic books, the "reiteration of the basic origin events holds together otherwise divergent expressions".
Batman is often treated as a vigilante by other characters in his stories. Frank Miller views the character as "a dionysian figure, a force for anarchy that imposes an individual order".
Batman, shortly a year after his debut and the introduction of Robin, was changed in after DC editor Whitney Ellsworth felt the character would be tainted by his lethal methods and DC established their own ethical code, subsequently he was retconned as having a stringent moral code.
On several occasions former Robin Dick Grayson has served as Batman; most notably in while Wayne was believed dead, and served as a second Batman even after Wayne returned in In an interview with IGN , Morrison detailed that having Dick Grayson as Batman and Damian Wayne as Robin represented a "reverse" of the normal dynamic between Batman and Robin, with, "a more light-hearted and spontaneous Batman and a scowling, badass Robin".
Morrison explained his intentions for the new characterization of Batman: "Dick Grayson is kind of this consummate superhero.
The guy has been Batman's partner since he was a kid, he's led the Teen Titans , and he's trained with everybody in the DC Universe.
So he's a very different kind of Batman. He's a lot easier; He's a lot looser and more relaxed. Over the years, there have been numerous others to assume the name of Batman, or to officially take over for Bruce during his leaves of absence.
Jean Paul Valley, also known as Azrael , assumed the cowl after the events of the Knightfall saga. Additionally, members of the group Batman, Incorporated , Bruce Wayne's experiment at franchising his brand of vigilantism, have at times stood in as the official Batman in cities around the world.
Batman's interactions with both villains and cohorts have, over time, developed a strong supporting cast of characters. Batman faces a variety of foes ranging from common criminals to outlandish supervillains.
Many of them mirror aspects of the Batman's character and development, often having tragic origin stories that lead them to a life of crime.
Batman's "most implacable foe" is the Joker , a homicidal maniac with a clown-like appearance. The Joker is considered by critics to be his perfect adversary, since he is the antithesis of Batman in personality and appearance; the Joker has a maniacal demeanor with a colorful appearance, while Batman has a serious and resolute demeanor with a dark appearance.
As a "personification of the irrational", the Joker represents "everything Batman [opposes]". Many of Batman's adversaries are often psychiatric patients at Arkham Asylum.
Batman's butler, Alfred Pennyworth , first appeared in Batman 16 He serves as Bruce Wayne's loyal father figure and is one of the few persons to know his secret identity.
Alfred raised Bruce after his parents' death and knows him on a very personal level. He is sometimes portrayed as a sidekick to Batman and the only other resident of Wayne Manor aside from Bruce.
The character "[lends] a homely touch to Batman's environs and [is] ever ready to provide a steadying and reassuring hand" to the hero and his sidekick.
The informal name " Batman family " is used for a group of characters closely allied with Batman, generally masked vigilantes who either have been trained by Batman or operate in Gotham City with his tacit approval.
They include: Barbara Gordon , Commissioner Gordon's daughter, who has fought crime under the vigilante identity of Batgirl and, during a period in which she was confined to a wheelchair due to a gunshot wound inflicted by the Joker, the computer hacker Oracle; Helena Bertinelli , the sole surviving member of a mob family turned vigilante, who has worked with Batman on occasion, primarily as the Huntress and as Batgirl for a brief stint; Cassandra Cain , the daughter of professional assassins David Cain , and Lady Shiva , who succeeded Bertinelli as Batgirl.
Lucius Fox , a technology specialist and Bruce Wayne's business manager who is well aware of his employer's clandestine vigilante activities; Dr.
Leslie Thompkins , a family friend who like Alfred became a surrogate parental figure to Bruce Wayne after the deaths of his parents, and is also aware of his secret identity; Vicki Vale , an investigative journalist who often reports on Batman's activities for the Gotham Gazette; Ace the Bat-Hound , Batman's canine partner who was mainly active in the s and s;  and Bat-Mite , an extra-dimensional imp mostly active in the s who idolizes Batman.
As a crime-fighting everyman , he shares Batman's goals while offering, much as the character of Watson does in Sherlock Holmes stories, a normal person's perspective on the work of Batman's extraordinary genius.
Batman is at times a member of superhero teams such as the Justice League of America and the Outsiders. In pre-Crisis continuity, the two are depicted as close friends; however, in current continuity, they are still close friends but an uneasy relationship, with an emphasis on their differing views on crime-fighting and justice.
Then, with some gadget from his utility belt, he reminds me that he has an extraordinarily inventive mind. And how lucky I am to be able to call on him.
Robin, Batman's vigilante partner, has been a widely recognized supporting character for many years. In the s he finally grew up, went off to college and became the hero Nightwing.
A second Robin, Jason Todd , appeared in the s. In the stories he was eventually badly beaten and then killed in an explosion set by the Joker, but was later revived.
He used the Joker's old persona, the Red Hood , and became an antihero vigilante with no qualms about using firearms or deadly force. The third Robin in the mainstream comics is Tim Drake , who first appeared in He went on to star in his own comic series, and currently goes by Red Robin , a variation on the traditional Robin persona.
In the first decade of the new millennium, Stephanie Brown served as the fourth in-universe Robin between stints as her self-made vigilante identity the Spoiler, and later as Batgirl.
The role eventually passed to Damian Wayne , the year-old son of Bruce Wayne and Talia al Ghul , in the late s. Unlike the Robins, Bluebird is willing and permitted to use a gun, albeit non-lethal ; her weapon of choice is a modified rifle that fires taser rounds.
Helena Wayne is the biological daughter of Bruce Wayne and Selina Kyle of an alternate universe established in the early s Multiverse where the Golden Age stories took place.
Terry McGinnis is the biological son of Bruce Wayne in the DC animated universe , and has taken over the role as Batman when Bruce has become too old to do so.
Writers have varied in the approach over the years to the "playboy" aspect of Bruce Wayne's persona.
Some writers show his playboy reputation as a manufactured illusion to support his mission as Batman, while others have depicted Bruce Wayne as genuinely enjoying the benefits of being "Gotham's most eligible bachelor".
Bruce Wayne has been portrayed as being romantically linked with many women throughout his various incarnations. The most significant relationships occurred with Selina Kyle, who is also Catwoman  and Talia al Ghul , as both women gave birth to his biological offsprings, Helena Wayne and Damian Wayne, respectively.
Some of Batman's romantic interests have been women with a respected status in society, such as Julie Madison , Vicki Vale , and Silver St.
While most of Batman's romantic relationships tend to be short in duration, Catwoman has been his most enduring romance throughout the years.
Although Catwoman is typically portrayed as a villain, Batman and Catwoman have worked together in achieving common goals and are usually depicted as having a romantic connection.
In an early s storyline, Selina Kyle and Bruce Wayne develop a relationship, in which the closing panel of the final story shows her referring to Batman as "Bruce".
However, a change in the editorial team brought a swift end to that storyline and, apparently, all that transpired during the story arc. The story shows Selina saving Bruce from Poison Ivy.
However, the relationship ends when Bruce rejects her advances twice; once as Bruce and once as Batman. In Batman: Dark Victory , he stands her up on two holidays, causing her to leave him for good and to leave Gotham City for a while.
When the two meet at an opera many years later, during the events of the issue story arc called " Hush ", Bruce comments that the two no longer have a relationship as Bruce and Selina.
However, "Hush" sees Batman and Catwoman allied against the entire rogues gallery and rekindling their romantic relationship. In "'Hush", Batman reveals his true identity to Catwoman.
They have a daughter named Helena Wayne , who becomes the Huntress. Along with Dick Grayson, the Earth-Two Robin , the Huntress takes the role as Gotham's protector once Bruce Wayne retires to become police commissioner, a position he occupies until he is killed during one final adventure as Batman.
Batman and Catwoman are shown having a sexual encounter on the roof of a building in Catwoman vol. The two also have a romantic relationship, in which they are shown having a sexual encounter on a rooftop and sleeping together.
When he does so, she says, "Yes. Batman Annual vol. Towards the end, the story is flash-forwarded to the future, in which Bruce Wayne and Selina Kyle are a married couple in their golden years.
Bruce receives a terminal medical diagnosis, and Selina cares for him until his death. Batman has no inherent superhuman powers; he relies on "his own scientific knowledge, detective skills, and athletic prowess".
In the stories, Batman is regarded as one of the world's greatest detectives, if not the world's greatest crime solver.
In the Superman: Doomed story arc, Superman considers Batman to be one of the most brilliant minds on the planet.
Batman has trained extensively in various different fighting styles, making him one of the best hand-to-hand fighters in the DC Universe.
He has fully utilized his photographic memory to master a total of different forms of martial arts. Batman is strongly disciplined, and he has the ability to function under great physical pain and resist most forms of telepathy and mind control.
He is a master of disguise , multilingual, and an expert in espionage , often gathering information under the identity of a notorious gangster named Matches Malone.
Batman is highly skilled in stealth movement and escapology , which allows him to appear and disappear at will and to break free of nearly inescapable deathtraps with little to no harm.
Batman is an expert in interrogation techniques and his intimidating and frightening appearance alone is often all that is needed in getting information from suspects.
Despite having the potential to harm his enemies, Batman's most defining characteristic is his strong commitment to justice and his reluctance to take a life.
This unyielding moral rectitude has earned him the respect of several heroes in the DC Universe, most notably that of Superman and Wonder Woman.
Among physical and other crime fighting related training, he is also proficient at other types of skills. Some of these include being a licensed pilot in order to operate the Batplane , as well as being able to operate other types of machinery.
In some publications, he underwent some magician training. Batman is also frequently described as a "peak human,"  [ unreliable source? Batman utilizes a vast arsenal of specialized, high-tech vehicles and gadgets in his war against crime, the designs of which usually share a bat motif.
Batman historian Les Daniels credits Gardner Fox with creating the concept of Batman's arsenal with the introduction of the utility belt in Detective Comics 29 July and the first bat-themed weapons the batarang and the "Batgyro" in Detective Comics 31 and 32 Sept.
Batman's body armored costume incorporates the imagery of a bat in order to frighten criminals. Finger and Kane originally conceptualized Batman as having a black cape and cowl and grey suit, but conventions in coloring called for black to be highlighted with blue.
In the Tim Burton 's Batman and Batman Returns films, Batman has been depicted as completely black with a bat in the middle surrounded by a yellow background.
Christopher Nolan 's The Dark Knight Trilogy depicted Batman wearing high-tech gear painted completely black with a black bat in the middle.
Ben Affleck 's Batman in the DC Extended Universe films wears a suit grey in color with a black cowl, cape, and bat symbol.
Batman's batsuit aids in his combat against enemies, having the properties of both Kevlar and Nomex. It protects him from gunfire and other significant impacts.
His gloves typically feature three scallops that protrude from long, gauntlet-like cuffs, although in his earliest appearances he wore short, plain gloves without the scallops.
Dennis O'Neil said, "We now say that Batman has two hundred suits hanging in the Batcave so they don't have to look the same Everybody loves to draw Batman, and everybody wants to put their own spin on it.
Batman's primary vehicle is the Batmobile , which is usually depicted as an imposing black car, often with tailfins that suggest a bat's wings.
Batman also has an aircraft called the Batplane later called the "Batwing" , along with various other means of transportation.
In proper practice, the "bat" prefix as in Batmobile or batarang is rarely used by Batman himself when referring to his equipment, particularly after some portrayals primarily the s Batman live-action television show and the Super Friends animated series stretched the practice to campy proportions.
For example, the s television show depicted a Batboat , Bat-Sub , and Batcycle , among other bat-themed vehicles.
The s television series Batman has an arsenal that includes such "bat-" names as the Bat-computer, Bat-scanner, bat-radar, bat-cuffs, bat-pontoons, bat-drinking water dispenser, bat-camera with polarized bat-filter, bat- shark repellent bat-spray, and Bat-rope.
The storyline "A Death in the Family" suggests that given Batman's grim nature, he is unlikely to have adopted the "bat" prefix on his own.
In The Dark Knight Returns , Batman tells Carrie Kelley that the original Robin came up with the name "Batmobile" when he was young, since that is what a kid would call Batman's vehicle.
The Batmobile was redesigned in when DC Comics relaunched its entire line of comic books, with the Batmobile being given heavier armor and new aesthetics.
Batman keeps most of his field equipment in his utility belt. Over the years it has shown to contain an assortment of crime-fighting tools, weapons, and investigative and technological instruments.
Different versions of the belt have these items stored in compartments, often as pouches or hard cylinders attached evenly around it.
Batman is often depicted as carrying a projectile which shoots a retractable grappling hook attached to a cable. This allows him to attach to distant objects, be propelled into the air, and thus swing from the rooftops of Gotham City.
An exception to the range of Batman's equipment are guns , which he refuses to use on principle, since a gun was used in his parents' murder.
When Batman is needed, the Gotham City police activate a searchlight with a bat-shaped insignia over the lens called the Bat-Signal, which shines into the night sky, creating a bat-symbol on a passing cloud which can be seen from any point in Gotham.
The origin of the signal varies, depending on the continuity and medium. In various incarnations, most notably the s Batman TV series , Commissioner Gordon also has a dedicated phone line, dubbed the Bat-Phone, connected to a bright red telephone in the TV series which sits on a wooden base and has a transparent top.
The line connects directly to Batman's residence, Wayne Manor , specifically both to a similar phone sitting on the desk in Bruce Wayne's study and the extension phone in the Batcave.
The Batcave is Batman's secret headquarters, consisting of a series of caves beneath his mansion, Wayne Manor.
As his command center, the Batcave serves multiple purposes; supercomputer, surveillance, redundant power-generators, forensics lab, medical infirmary, private study, training dojo, fabrication workshop, arsenal, hangar and garage.
It houses the vehicles and equipment Batman uses in his campaign to fight crime. It is also a trophy room and storage facility for Batman's unique memorabilia collected over the years from various cases he has worked on.
In both the comic Batman: Shadow of the Bat 45 and the film Batman Begins , the cave is said to have been part of the Underground Railroad.
Batman's history has undergone many retroactive continuity revisions, both minor and major. Elements of the character's history have varied greatly.
Scholars William Uricchio and Roberta E. Pearson noted in the early s, "Unlike some fictional characters, the Batman has no primary urtext set in a specific period, but has rather existed in a plethora of equally valid texts constantly appearing over more than five decades.
The central fixed event in the Batman stories is the character's origin story. Thomas Wayne and his wife Martha , murdered with a gun by a mugger named Joe Chill.
Batman refuses to utilize any sort of gun on the principle that a gun was used to murder his parents. This event drove him to train his body to its peak condition and fight crime in Gotham City as Batman.
Pearson and Uricchio also noted beyond the origin story and such events as the introduction of Robin, "Until recently, the fixed and accruing and hence, canonized, events have been few in number",  a situation altered by an increased effort by later Batman editors such as Dennis O'Neil to ensure consistency and continuity between stories.
In Batman's first appearance in Detective Comics 27, he is already operating as a crime-fighter. As these comics state, Bruce Wayne is born to Dr.
Thomas Wayne and his wife Martha, two very wealthy and charitable Gotham City socialites. Bruce is brought up in Wayne Manor , and leads a happy and privileged existence until the age of eight, when his parents are killed by a small-time criminal named Joe Chill while on their way home from a movie theater.
That night, Bruce Wayne swears an oath to spend his life fighting crime. He engages in intense intellectual and physical training; however, he realizes that these skills alone would not be enough.
I must be a creature of the night, black, terrible In early strips, Batman's career as a vigilante earns him the ire of the police.
Batman also becomes a founding member of the Justice Society of America ,  although he, like Superman, is an honorary member,  and thus only participates occasionally.
Batman's relationship with the law thaws quickly, and he is made an honorary member of Gotham City's police department.
Batman is not significantly changed by the late s for the continuity which would be later referred to as Earth-One. The lighter tone Batman had taken in the period between the Golden and Silver Ages led to the stories of the late s and early s that often feature many science-fiction elements, and Batman is not significantly updated in the manner of other characters until Detective Comics May , in which Batman reverts to his detective roots, with most science-fiction elements jettisoned from the series.
The two have a daughter, Helena Wayne , who becomes the Huntress. Wayne holds the position of police commissioner until he is killed during one final adventure as Batman.
Batman titles, however, often ignored that a distinction had been made between the pre-revamp and post-revamp Batmen since unlike the Flash or Green Lantern , Batman comics had been published without interruption through the s and would occasionally make reference to stories from the Golden Age.
Additions include meetings with a future Superman during his youth, his upbringing by his uncle Philip Wayne introduced in Batman Feb.
Batman meets and regularly works with other heroes during the Silver Age, most notably Superman, whom he began regularly working alongside in a series of team-ups in World's Finest Comics , starting in and continuing through the series' cancellation in Batman and Superman are usually depicted as close friends.
Additionally, Batman also moves from his mansion, Wayne Manor into a penthouse apartment atop the Wayne Foundation building in downtown Gotham City, in order to be closer to Gotham City's crime.
Batman's adventures also become somewhat darker and more grim during this period, depicting increasingly violent crimes, including the first appearance since the early golden age of the Joker as a homicidal psychopath , and the arrival of Ra's al Ghul , a centuries-old terrorist who knows Batman's secret identity.
In the s, Dick Grayson becomes Nightwing. He serves as the team's leader until Batman and the Outsiders 32 and the comic subsequently changed its title.
After the issue miniseries Crisis on Infinite Earths , DC Comics retconned the histories of some major characters in an attempt at updating them for contemporary audiences.
Frank Miller retold Batman's origin in the storyline " Year One " from Batman —, which emphasizes a grittier tone in the character. For example, Gotham's police are mostly corrupt, setting up further need for Batman's existence.
Additionally, Batman is no longer a founding member of the Justice League of America, although he becomes leader for a short time of a new incarnation of the team launched in To help fill in the revised backstory for Batman following Crisis , DC launched a new Batman title called Legends of the Dark Knight in and has published various miniseries and one-shot stories since then that largely take place during the "Year One" period.
Subsequently, Batman begins exhibiting an excessive, reckless approach to his crimefighting, a result of the pain of losing Jason Todd.
Batman works solo until the decade's close, when Tim Drake becomes the new Robin. Many of the major Batman storylines since the s have been intertitle crossovers that run for a number of issues.
In , DC published " Knightfall ". During the storyline's first phase, the new villain Bane paralyzes Batman, leading Wayne to ask Azrael to take on the role.
After the end of "Knightfall", the storylines split in two directions, following both the Azrael-Batman's adventures, and Bruce Wayne's quest to become Batman once more.
The story arcs realign in "KnightsEnd", as Azrael becomes increasingly violent and is defeated by a healed Bruce Wayne. Wayne hands the Batman mantle to Dick Grayson then Nightwing for an interim period, while Wayne trains for a return to the role.
The company-wide crossover storyline " Zero Hour: Crisis in Time " changes aspects of DC continuity again, including those of Batman. Noteworthy among these changes is that the general populace and the criminal element now considers Batman an urban legend rather than a known force.
During this time, Gotham City faces catastrophe in the decade's closing crossover arc. In 's " Cataclysm " storyline, Gotham City is devastated by an earthquake and ultimately cut off from the United States.
Deprived of many of his technological resources, Batman fights to reclaim the city from legions of gangs during 's " No Man's Land ".
Lex Luthor arranges for the murder of Batman's on-again, off-again love interest Vesper Lynd introduced in the mids during the "Bruce Wayne: Murderer?
Though Batman is able to clear his name, he loses another ally in the form of his new bodyguard Sasha, who is recruited into the organization known as "Checkmate" while stuck in prison due to her refusal to turn state's evidence against her employer.
Light after he raped Sue Dibny. Batman later creates the Brother I satellite surveillance system to watch over and, if necessary, kill the other heroes after he remembered.
The revelation of Batman's creation and his tacit responsibility for the Blue Beetle's death becomes a driving force in the lead-up to the Infinite Crisis miniseries, which again restructures DC continuity.
Picking up a gun, Batman nearly shoots Luthor in order to avenge his former sidekick, until Wonder Woman convinces him to not pull the trigger. Part of this absence is captured during Week 30 of the 52 series, which shows Batman fighting his inner demons.
This becomes an important part of the regular Batman title, which reveals that Batman is reborn as a more effective crime fighter while undergoing this ritual, having "hunted down and ate" the last traces of fear in his mind.
Although originally, in Son of the Demon , Bruce's coupling with Talia was implied to be consensual, this arc retconned it into Talia forcing herself on Bruce.
Batman, along with Superman and Wonder Woman, reforms the Justice League in the new Justice League of America series,  and is leading the newest incarnation of the Outsiders.
Grant Morrison 's storyline, " Batman R. The story ends with Batman retrieving the god-killing bullet used to kill Orion, setting up its use in "Final Crisis".
Dick and Batman's other friends conclude that Bruce is alive. Bruce subsequently returned in Morrison's miniseries Batman: The Return of Bruce Wayne , which depicted his travels through time from prehistory to present-day Gotham.
Bruce publicly announced that Wayne Enterprises will aid Batman on his mission, known as "Batman, Incorporated". However, due to rebooted continuity that occurred as part of DC Comics' relaunch of all of its comic books, The New 52 , Dick Grayson was restored as Nightwing with Wayne serving as the sole Batman once again.
The relaunch also interrupted the publication of Batman, Incorporated , which resumed its story in — with changes to suit the new status quo.
Batman has become a pop culture icon, recognized around the world. The character's presence has extended beyond his comic book origins; events such as the release of the Batman film and its accompanying merchandising "brought the Batman to the forefront of public consciousness".
He is at once an icon and a commodity: the perfect cultural artefact for the 21st century. The character of Batman has appeared in various media aside from comic books, such as newspaper syndicated comic strips , books, radio dramas, television, a stage show , and several theatrical feature films.
The first adaptation of Batman was as a daily newspaper comic strip which premiered on October 25, While Batman never had a radio series of his own, the character made occasional guest appearances in The Adventures of Superman starting in on occasions when Superman voice actor Bud Collyer needed time off.
The exposure provided by these adaptations during the s "helped make [Batman] a household name for millions who never bought a comic book". Batman is portrayed for purposes of spoof as a pretentious French-speaking rich man.
Inflected with a camp sense of humor, the show became a pop culture phenomenon. In his memoir, Back to the Batcave , West notes his dislike for the term 'camp' as it was applied to the s series, opining that the show was instead a farce or lampoon , and a deliberate one, at that.
The series ran for episodes, ending in In between the first and second season of the Batman television series, the cast and crew made the theatrical film Batman Olan Soule was the voice of Batman in all these shows, but was eventually replaced during Super Friends by Adam West, who also voiced the character in Filmation 's series The New Adventures of Batman.
Animation and featuring Kevin Conroy as the voice of Batman. The series received considerable acclaim for its darker tone, mature writing, stylistic design, and thematic complexity compared to previous superhero cartoons,   in addition to multiple Emmy Awards.
The futuristic series Batman Beyond also took place in this same animated continuity and featured a newer, younger Batman voiced by Will Friedle , with the elderly Bruce Wayne again voiced by Conroy as a mentor.
In , an unrelated animated series titled The Batman made its debut with Rino Romano voicing Batman. In , this show was replaced by another animated series, Batman: The Brave and the Bold , featuring Diedrich Bader 's voice as Batman.
In , when the series was renewed for its fifth and final season it was announced that Batman would make an appearance in the show's series finale's flash-forward.
Iain Glen portrays Bruce Wayne in the live-action series Titans , appearing in the show's second season in To commemorate the 75th anniversary of the character, Warner Bros aired the television short film , Batman: Strange Days , that was also posted on DC's YouTube channel.
In August , it was announced that Kevin Conroy would make his live-action television debut as an older Bruce Wayne in the upcoming Arrowverse crossover, Crisis on Infinite Earths.
In , Warner Bros. The film was a huge success; not only was it the top-grossing film of the year, but at the time was the fifth highest-grossing film in history.
The second Schumacher film failed to outgross any of its predecessors and was critically panned, causing Warner Bros.
In , Batman Begins was released by Warner Bros. Its sequel, The Dark Knight , set the record for the highest grossing opening weekend of all time in the U.
In Robert Pattinson was cast to play Batman in an upcoming reboot of the franchise, The Batman , releasing in Starting with the Pop Art period, and on a continuing basis, since the s, the character of Batman has been "appropriated" by multiple visual artists and incorporated into contemporary artwork,   most notably by Andy Warhol   , Roy Lichtenstein  , Mel Ramos   , Dulce Pinzon  , Mr.
Brainwash  , Raymond Pettibon  , Peter Saul  , and others. Since , Batman has starred in multiple video games, most of which were adaptations of the various cinematic or animated incarnations of the character.
Among the most successful of these games is the Batman: Arkham series. Mayfair Games published the DC Heroes role-playing game in , then published the page supplement Batman the following year, written by Mike Stackpole , with cover art by Ed Hannigan.
Gay interpretations of the character have been part of the academic study of Batman since psychologist Fredric Wertham asserted in Seduction of the Innocent in that "Batman stories are psychologically homosexual The Batman type of story may stimulate children to homosexual fantasies, of the nature of which they may be unconscious.
He also identifies a homophobic element to the vigor with which mainstream fandom rejects the possibility of a gay reading of the character.
Creators associated with the character have expressed their own opinions. Only Joel Schumacher might have had an opposing view.
Obviously as a fictional character he's intended to be heterosexual, but the basis of the whole concept is utterly gay.
Batman has been the subject of psychological study for some time, and there have been a number of interpretations into the character's psyche.
In Batman and Psychology: A Dark and Stormy Knight , Travis Langley argues that the concept of archetypes as described by psychologists Carl Jung and Joseph Campbell is present in the Batman mythos, such that the character represents the "shadow archetype".
This archetype, according to Langley, represents a person's own dark side; it is not necessarily an evil one, but rather one that is hidden from the outside and concealed from both the world and oneself.
Langley argues that Bruce Wayne confronts his own darkness early in life; he chooses to use it to instill fear in wrongdoers, with his bright and dark sides working together to fight evil.
Langley uses the Jungian perspective to assert that Batman appeals to our own need to face our "shadow selves".
Travis Langley also taught a class called Batman, a title he was adamant about. I called it Batman," Langley says. Rosenberg evaluated his actions and problems to determine if they reach the level of mental disorders.
She examined the possibility of several mental health issues, including dissociative identity disorder , obsessive—compulsive disorder , and several others.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the fictional character. For other uses, see Batman disambiguation.
For other uses, see Bruce Wayne disambiguation. Fictional superhero. Bob Kane Bill Finger  . See also: List of Batman comics.
See also: Alternative versions of Batman. See also: The New Criminals are a superstitious cowardly lot.
So my disguise must be able to strike terror into their hearts. Main article: Alternate versions of Batman.